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Taxonomic Updates, Taxonomy, Information and ID Keys For Scorpions

Discussion in 'Scorpions' started by Kugellager, May 2, 2005.

  1. Kugellager

    Kugellager ArachnoJester Arachnosupporter

    Taxonomic Updates, Information and ID Keys For Scorpions

    This sticky will be devoted to the posting of updates and changes to taxomic nomenclature and identification of scorpions. The reason I am doing this it to make an attempt to keep all this information in one easy-to-find place.

    Please keep all comments and discussion strictly to the taxonomic posts. I will attempt to moderate this thread quite strictly to keep the fluff to a bare minimum and will delete all posts not directly relevant to the information that will end up here. I ask everyone to do their part and not post OT in this thread.

    To reiterate. This is not a thread for posting keeping conditions, enclosure information or behavioral information. This is strictly meant to be a scientific information thread devoted to the taxonomic classification and identification of scorpions.

    As I have little time to search through the Scorpion forum for other information previously that may be relevant to this thread; I would ask that if any of you guys come across taxonomic information or a species ID key already posted in the Scorpion Forum that you PM me with a link to the pertinent post and I will move or copy it to here.

    Lastly; When posting new information here please label your post title with species/genus/famliy information to further cross referencing and make it easier to use the search function. Also, reference somewhere in the body of the post who made the new re-classification or ID key.


    Last edited: May 2, 2005
  2. TheNothing

    TheNothing Arachnoprince Old Timer

    here's some of my previous posts:

    The family name Liochelidae is changed to Hemiscorpiidae. Hemiscorpiidae
    includes the same genera and species as Liochelidae + the genus
    Heteroscorpion from Urodacidae.

    The family Urodacidae is abolished, and Heteroscorpion is transfered to
    Hemiscorpiidae and Urodacus is transferd to Scorpionidae.

    The complete article is freely available at the Euscorpius Journal homepage:


    Acosta & Fet (2005) have changed the spelling of P. leiosoma back to P. liosoma (no "e")

    Acosta & Fet (2005)
    Nomenclatural notes in Scorpiones (Arachnida).
    Zootaxa, 934:1-12.
  3. Ythier

    Ythier Arachnoprince Old Timer

    Androctonus taxonomic changes


    Some new taxonomic changes in the genus Androctonus (13 species now) from Lourenço. He just gave me his paper today but it's from March (Lourenço W.R., 2005. Nouvelles considérations taxonomiques sur les espèces du genre Androctonus Ehrenberg, 1828 et description de deux nouvelles espèces (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Rev.Suisse de Zool. 112(1):145-171) :

    - A.amoreuxi : the subspecies A.a.amoreuxi is placed in synonymy of A.amoreuxi, and all the forms found in Middle East and Asia (the two other subspecies A.a.levyi and A.a.baluchicus) are not considered belonging to A.amoreuxi. A.a.baluchicus is now considered as a valid species A.baluchicus. The status of A.a.levyi is still unclear. The species A.amoreuxi is now only found in North Africa, perhaps in Israel.
    - A.australis : all subspecies (A.a.australis, A.a.africanus, A.a.garzonii, A.a.hector, A.a.lybicus) are placed in the synonymy of A.australis, which is considered as a polymorphic species.
    - A.bicolor : subspecies A.b.bicolor and A.b.aeneas are placed in synonymy of A.bicolor. A.b.liouvillei is considered as a valid species : A.liouvillei.
    - A.mauritanicus : both subspecies (A.m.mauritanicus and A.m.bourdoni) are placed in the synonymy of A.mauritanicus.
    - A.crassicauda : subspecies A.c.crassicauda is placed in synonymy of A.crassicauda, and A.c.gonneti is considered as a valid species : A.gonneti.

    - A.baluchicus (A. amoreuxi baluchicus before the revision).
    - A.liouvillei (A. bicolor liouvillei before the revision)
    - A.gonneti (A. crassicauda gonneti before the revision)

    - 2 new species : A.maelfaiti (India) and A.dekeyseri (Senegal and Mauritania)

    - And 3 others non changed : A.sergenti, A.hoggarensis and A.finitimus.

    Last edited: May 3, 2005
  4. Kugellager

    Kugellager ArachnoJester Arachnosupporter

    Last edited: May 2, 2005
  5. fusion121

    fusion121 Arachnoking Old Timer

  6. Ythier

    Ythier Arachnoprince Old Timer

    Hi Oliver,
    I don't have the skills to judge the paper of Kovarik, but according some scorpiologists, this paper is not good. Photos are nice but totally useless to identify well an Heterometrus, and text seems to be very poor in information. The Couzijn or Tikader's books seems to be better to identify Heterometrus spp.
  7. fusion121

    fusion121 Arachnoking Old Timer

    Yes, I read the discussion on scorpionfans about it and certainly his key seems to concentrate too much on colouring to differentiate the species. But also I think its a bit easier for non-scorpiologists to follow, then a key that needs a more in-depth knowledge of scorpion taxonomy, which is probably what most keepers of Heterometrus want since they tend to be beginners, just an opinion :)
  8. G. Carnell

    G. Carnell Arachnoemperor Old Timer

    the Couzijn key might be good to determine locality too, as he describes granularion of the Heterometrus in regards to where they come from (the old subspecies)

    but Kovariks pictures help enormously!!
    though the lack of H.laoticus and other pictures leaves a large hole of knowledge which needs to be filled
    and it doesnt take into account differences in shape and granulation of different populations, ideally there would be pics of females too :(
  9. Kugellager

    Kugellager ArachnoJester Arachnosupporter

    North American Family and Genera ID Key

    Here is a link to Scott Stockwell's paper Systemic Observations on North American Scorpionida with a Key and Checklist of the Families and Genera. It is a pdf and slow loading at times. This link was brought to my attention by Chad today and I thought I would add it here.


  10. fusion121

    fusion121 Arachnoking Old Timer

    Since people seem to like keys here are some keys to entire genera, not keys done by locality, I'll add some more when I get the references together. Most are only available from libraries.


    Timogenes – Maury, Entomolgica Argentina, 1982, 41, p.23


    Centruroides - Stahnke and Calos, Entomological news, 1977, 88, p. 111
    Grosphus – Lourenco, Entomol. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg, 1999, 13, p.133-138
    Isometrus – Kovařík, Euscorpius, 2003, 10 Link
    Parabuthus - Prendini, The Journal of Arachnology, 2004, 32, p.109–186 (20 species)
    Rhopalurus – Lourenco, Revue Arachnologique, 1982, 4, p.107-141


    Euscorpius - Kovarík, Serket, 1999, 6 (2), p. 38-44 Link to Jan Ove Rein's key


    Heterometrus - Couzijn, Rijk. v. Natur. Hist. Leiden, 1981, 184, p.1-196.
    Heterometrus - Kovařík, Euscorpius, 2004, 15, p. 1-60 Link
    Urodacus – Koch, Rec. West. Aust. Mus, 5, p. 83-367 Link to Scorpion Files
    Last edited: May 26, 2005
  11. Nazgul

    Nazgul Arachnoangel Old Timer


    me too :D but most of the following keys are more locality related:

    BELFIELD W. (1952): A Preliminary Check List of the West African Scorpions and Key for their Identification – Journal of the West African Science Association Vol.2 Nr.1: 41-47

    EL-HENNAWY H.K. (1987): A simplified key to Egyptian scorpion species (Arachnida: Scorpionida) – Serket Vol. 1(1): 15-17

    FITZPATRICK M.J. (1994): A checklist of the Parabuthus Pocock species of Zimbabwe with a re-description of P. mossambicensis (Peters, 1861) (Arachnida: Scorpionida) – Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association 68: 7-14

    LAWRENCE R.F. (1955): Solifugae, scorpions and pedipalpi, with checklist of and keys to South African families, genera and species. II. Scorpions – South African Animal Life 1: 205-257

    LOURENÇO W.R. & R. OTERO PATINO (1998): Tityus antioquensis sp. n., a new species of scorpion from the Department Antioqua, Central Cordillera of Colombia (Scorpiones, Buthidae), with a checklist and key for the Colombian species of the genus - Entomologische Mitteilungen zoologisches Museum Hamburg 12 (158): 297–307

    STAHNKE H.L. (1972): A key to the genera of Buthidae (Scorpionida) – Entomological News 83: 121-133

    STAHNKE H.L. (1974): Revision and Keys to the Higher Categories of Vejovidae (Scorpionida) - Journal of Arachnology 1: 107-141

  12. Ythier

    Ythier Arachnoprince Old Timer

    Some new species :
    - Heterometrus tibetanus (China)
    - Mesobuthus songi (China)
    - Chactas braziliensis (Brazil)
  13. =Jan=

    =Jan= Arachnopeon

  14. redhourglass

    redhourglass Arachnobaron Old Timer

    Hi Jacobo,

    The genus of Tityus is a complete mess moreso than Centruroides LOL. No key will help. There is to much polymorphism/variation.....

    Search the various papers for Lourenco et. al. Some good some not. :confused:


    Sinc. Chad
  15. Nazgul

    Nazgul Arachnoangel Old Timer


    a key for the Colombian Tityus spp:

    LOURENÇO W.R. (2000): Synopsis of the Colombian species of Tityus Koch (Chelicerata, Scorpiones, Buthidae), with descriptions of three new species – Journal of Natural History 34: 449-461

  16. redhourglass

    redhourglass Arachnobaron Old Timer

    Last edited: Nov 15, 2005
  17. Nazgul

    Nazgul Arachnoangel Old Timer


    the latest overview for the genus Euscorpius:

    FET V., SOLEGLAD M.E. & B. GANTENBEIN (2004): The Euroscorpion: Taxonomy and systematics of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) in: Fet V. & Soleglad M.E. (eds): Proceedings of the 3rd Scorpiology Symposium (28th Annual Meeting of the American Arachnological Society, Norman, Oklahoma, June 24, 2004) – Euscorpius 17: 47-60

    You just have to add E. concinnus which is described here:

    VIGNOLI V., SALOMONE N., CARUSO T. & F. BERNINI (2005): The Euscorpius tergestinus (C.L. Koch, 1837) complex in Italy: Biometrics of sympatric hidden species (Scopriones: Euscopiidae) – Zoologischer Anzeiger 244 : 97-113

  18. Prymal

    Prymal Arachnoking Old Timer

    Proposed new systematics changes based upon:

    Prendini, L. & W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Scorpion higher phylogeny and classification, taxonomic anarchy, and standards for peer review in online publishing. Cladistics 21: 446-494.

    The suprageneric classification of extant scorpions proposed in the above paper:

    Superfamilial categories are abolished. New synonymies =

    Parvorders Buthida, Chaerilida, Iurida, & Pseudochactida = Order Scorpiones.

    Superfamilies Bothriuroidea, Buthoidea, Chactoidea, Chaeriloidea, Iuroidea, Pseudochactoidea, Scorpionoidea & Vaejovoidea = Order Scorpiones.

    Family Caraboctonidae = Familu Iuridae.

    Subfamily Bothriurinae = Family Bothriuridae
    Subfamily Brotheinae = Family Chactidae
    Subfamily Chactinae = Family Chactidae
    Subfamily Euscorpiinae = Family Euscorpiidae
    Subfamily Hemiscorpioniinae = Hemiscorpionidae
    Subfamily Hormurinae = Family Liochelidae
    Subfamily Lisposominae = Family Bothriuridae
    Subfamily Megacorminae = Family Euscorpiidae
    Subfamily Scorpioninae = Family Scorpionidae
    Subfamily Scorpiopinae = Family Scorpiopidae
    Subfamily Uroctoninae = Family Vaejovidae

    Tribe Brotheini = Family Chactidae
    Tribe Chactini = Family Chactidae
    Tribe Chactopsini = Family Chactidae
    Tribe Diplocentrini = Subfamily Diplocentrinae
    Tribe Megacormini = Family Euscorpiidae
    Tribe Nullibrotheini = Family Chactidae
    Tribe Scorpiopini = Family Scorpiopidae
    Tribe Troglocormini = Family Euscorpiidae
    Subtribe Brotheina = Family Chactidae
    Subtribe Neochactina = Family Chactidae

    Genus Franckeus = Genus Vaejovis
    Genus Hoffmannihadrurus = Genus Hadrurus
    Genus Neochactas = Genus Broteochactas

    Families and genera:

    Family Bothriuridae = Genera Brothriurus, Brachistosternus, Brandbergia, Brazilobothriurus, Centromachetes, Cercophonius, Lisposoma, Orobothriurus, Pachakutej, Phoniocercus, Tehuankea, Thestylus, Timogenes, Urophonius & Vachonia.

    Family Buthidae = Genera Afroisometrus, Akentrobuthus, Alayotityus, Ananteris, Androctonus, Anomalobuthus, Apistobuthus, Australobuthus, Babycurus, Baloorthochirus, Birulatus, Buthacus, Butheoloides, Butheolus, Buthiscus, Buthoscorpio, Buthus, Centruroides, Charmus, Cicileus, Compsobuthus, Congobuthus, Darchenia, Egyptobuthus, Grosphus, Hemibuthus, Hemilychas, Himalayotityobuthus, Hottentotta, Iranobuthus, Isometroides, Isometrus, Karasbergia, Kraepelinia, Lanzatus, Leiurus, Liobuthus, Lissothus, Lychas, Lychasioides, Mesobuthus, Mesotityus, Microananteris, Microbuthus, Microtityus, Neobuthus, Neogrosphus, Odontobuthus, Odonturus, Orthochirus, Orthochiroides, Parabuthus, Paraorthochirus, Pectinibuthus, Plesiobuthus, Polisius, Psammobuthus, Pseudolissothus, Pseudolychas, Pseudouroplectes, Razianus, Rhopalurus, Sabinebuthus, Sassanidothus, Simonoides, Somalibuthus, Somalicharmus, Thaicharmus, Tityobuthus, Tityopsis, Tityus, Troglorhopalurus, Troglotityobuthus, Uroplectes, Uroplectoides, Vachoniolus, Vachonus & Zabius.

    Family Chactidae = Genera Auyantepuia, Brotheas, Broteochactas, Cayooca, Chactas, Chactopsis, Guyanochactas, Hadrurochactas, Nullibrotheas, Teuthraustes & Vachoniochactas.

    Family Chaerilidae = Genus Chaerilus.

    Family Diplocentridae = Subfamily Diplocentrinae = Genera Bioculus, Cazierius, Didymocentrus, Diplocentrus, Heteronebo, Oiclus & Tarsoporosus.
    Subfamily Nebinae = Genus Nebo.

    Family Euscorpiidae = Genera Euscorpius, Megacormus, Plesiochactas & Troglocormus.

    Family Hemiscorpiidae = Genera Habibiella & Hemiscorpius.

    Family Heteroscorpionidae = Genus Heteroscorpion.

    Family Iuridae = Subfamily Caraboctoninae = Genera Caraboctonus & Hadruroides. Subfamily Hadrurinae = Genera Anuroctonus & Hadrurus. Subfanily Iurinae = Calchas & Iurus.

    Family Liochelidae = Genera Cheloctonus, Chiromachetes, Chiromachus, Hadogenes, Iomachus, Liocheles, Opisthacanthus & Palaeocheloctonus.

    Family Microcharmidae = Genera Ankaranocharmus, Microcharmus & Neoprotobuthus.

    Family Pseudochactidae = Genus Pseudochactas.

    Family Scorpionidae = Genera Heterometrus, Opistophthalmus, Pandinus & Scorpio.

    Family Scorpiopidae = Genera Alloscorpiops, Dasyscorpiops, Euscorpiops, Neoscorpiops, Parascorpiops & Scorpiops.

    Family Superstitioniidae = Subfamily Superstitioniinae = Genus Superstitionia. Subfamily Typhlochactinae = Genera Alacran, Sotanochactas & Typhlochactas.

    Family Troglotayosicidae = Subfamily Belisariinae = Genus Belisarius. Subfamily Troglotayosicinae = Genus Troglotayosicus.

    Family Urodacidae = Genus Urodacus.

    Family Vaejovidae = Genera Paravaejovis, Paruroctonus, Pseudouroctonus, Serradigitus, Smeringurus, Syntropis, Uroctonites, Uroctonus, Vaejovis & Vejovoidus.

    Best Regards,
  19. Michiel

    Michiel Arachnoking Old Timer

    Offcourse it's obvious that Couzijns' revision is the greatest of them all.;P

    Michiel Cozijn
    Yes, loving scorpions runs in the family

    I was just making fun, I did not read Kovariks paper (still busy with his paper on Babycurus)so I don't know which one is better.
  20. Prymal

    Prymal Arachnoking Old Timer

    Hi Michiel,

    Both Heterometrus revisionary papers have their pro's and con's. Personally, I try to remain distant from taxonomic matters but am fast becoming an avid supporter of the use of molecular analysis for revisionary works; supported by good ol' morphological analysis. Nuff said!

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