Scorpion predation by arthropoda

Gogyeng

Arachnobaron
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Despite their formidable armour, scorpions are known to suffer from parasitism by nematodes and ectoparasitism by acarians (pterygosomydae), are predated by theraposids (B vagans) and large centipedes, but very little is known about interactions with members of the order hemiptera.
Reduviidae has proven to exploit morphological weaknesses of the scorpion armor: they insert their rostrum into the pleura between mesosoma's segments:

Predation on the Scorpion Centruroides hentzi (Banks) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) by the Assassin Bug Microtomus purcis (Drury) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae)


https://bioone.org/journals/Southea...orpiones--Buthidae/10.1656/058.014.0101.short


Predation of a scorpion (Scorpiones: Buthidae) by an assassin bug(Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/abstract.htm?id=18102


Do you know any other examples? More interestingly, are there other arthropods preying on scorpions. What about pompilid wasps?

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References:

https://www.jstor.org/stable/23048805?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

https://www.researchgate.net/public...89_Chilopoda_Scolopendromorpha_Scolopendridae
 

Patherophis

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Flies Sarcophaga dux and Megaselia scalaris were recorded as facultative parasites of scorpions.
 

Wolfram1

Arachnosquire
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Flies Sarcophaga dux and Megaselia scalaris were recorded as facultative parasites of scorpions.
yes but those flys prey on almost any organism if they can get access to a festering wound, they aren't specialised on parasitising scorpions, let alone being a parasite in general.

Scorpions fall prey to lots of animals mammals and birds mostly, as well as some other top arthropod predators like those assasin bugs, cannibalism happens as well.
The question is, is there an animal out there that specialises exclusively on scorpions as prey or host?
 

Patherophis

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but those flys prey on almost any organism if they can get access to a festering wound, they aren't specialised on parasitising scorpions, let alone being a parasite in general.
yeah, that is what word "facultative" stands for :meh:
The question is, is there an animal out there that specialises exclusively on scorpions as prey or host?
Yes, mites Pimeliaphilus isometri, Pimeliaphilus joshuae and Pimeliaphilus rapax, and most likely some other species.

cannibalism happens as well.
Funny thing, it actually seems that the most significant invertebrate predators of scorpions are other scorpions.
 

Outpost31Survivor

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Scorpions, spiders, tarantulas, solifugids, and centipedes all prey on each other. Size differential seems to make a difference on the outcome (or rather predation is often a favorable opportunity) but in some instances the tables may even be turned on the predator. Then there are lizards, amphibians, birds, and small mammals too. But outside of these parasites (of which I only just read about here) and assassin bugs I have never heard of any arthropods that actually specialize on scorpion predation.
 
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Rhino1

Arachnobaron
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Good post and interesting links, i know I'm going off track here but I recently gave a friend a hand to unbox an order (he owns a petshop) and a large phlogius was found dead the next morning but underneath it was a liocheles scorpion, did this scorpion kill this T or is it coincidence.
Obviously there was still a scorpion that was overlooked in the display tank
 

Outpost31Survivor

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Good post and interesting links, i know I'm going off track here but I recently gave a friend a hand to unbox an order (he owns a petshop) and a large phlogius was found dead the next morning but underneath it was a liocheles scorpion, did this scorpion kill this T or is it coincidence.
Obviously there was still a scorpion that was overlooked in the display tank

A Liocheles take down a large tarantula, my guess it was a coincidence. I imagine the tarantula would have simply pounced on the Liocheles which may not even possess the venom potency to kill a Phlogius. But then again I am not familiar with Liocheles.

An arachnid fight club proves that tarantulas are good neighbors
Spiderday Night Writes #02
In 2005, Ariane Dor and Dr. Yann Henaut noticed something strange across villages in the southern Yucatan. Two otherwise common residents - scorpions from the genus Centruroides, and the red-rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans - seemed to be avoiding each other.



Fig 1. The tarantula Brachypelma vagans (a) and the scorpions Centruroides gracilis (b) and Centruroides ochraceus (c) live in similar types of habitats in the Yucatan peninsula, but are rarely found in the same place. Photo (a) by Carlos Valenzuela, (b, c) by Maximilian Paradiz.

It should have been easy to find both together. Dor and Henaut had plenty of experience searching for Mexican arachnids, and they knew where to look. The two scientists, both from the Mexican research institute ECOSUR (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur; “College of the Southern Frontier”), had been documenting populations of B. vagans for several years in order to conserve the species. B. vagans is legally protected in Mexico for fear of over-collection for the international pet trade. Henaut had discovered that this tarantula could be quite common in rural towns [1], and others had noted the same about Centruroides scorpions [2].



Fig 2. Brachypelma vagans has a limited home range (shown in orange). From the IUCN.

But in village after village, Dor and Henaut saw the same pattern. It didn’t matter whether they interviewed local residents, or searched themselves, night and day, week after week. If the tarantulas were living somewhere, the scorpions were scarce, and vice versa.

Dor and Henaut couldn’t help but ask why.

Luckily, Dor’s data told a clear story - the undisputed champion of the Yucatan arachnid arena was the tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.It wasn’t even close.

While the Centruroides scorpions sometimes made the first attack, they were never successful. The tarantulas claimed all victories - catching and consuming their opponent about 60% of the time, no matter who they were facing. At last, Dor and her team were able to confirm their suspicions - predation by the tarantula keeps these two arachnids apart in the wild.



Fig 6. An example of a fight between B. vagans and Centruroides gracilis. The scorpion attacks first, nipping at the tarantula’s leg, but flees after the tarantula strikes back. Original video courtesy of Yann Henaut.

https://www.spiderdaynightlive.com/...ub-proves-that-tarantulas-are-good-neighbors/
 

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Outpost31Survivor

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Australian species can increase production of toxins that affect mammals

The Australian rainforest scorpion (Liocheles waigiensis) has been found to be able to tweak the chemical profile of its venom following just weeks of exposure to a predator. The scorpion appears to do this to tailor its cocktail of venom toxins to deter predators that threaten it, rather than to hunt its preferred prey, insects.

The researchers presented scorpions in the laboratory with a taxidermied mouse to mimic a mammalian predator in the wild. They simulated mouse attacks on the scorpions three times a week for five weeks.

Towards the end of the experiment, the researchers found that the venom chemistry of predator-exposed scorpions differed from that of the unexposed scorpions. In exposed scorpions they found a relative increase in the production of some toxins that specifically target mammalian cells. Exposure to the dummy predator also decreased the production of toxins that scorpions use to catch prey such as insects.

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news...s-venom-to-ward-off-predators/3008045.article
 
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