Hottentotta genus and medical significance species

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
The Hottentotta genus save for tamulus is neglected and understudied as a whole. There is a dearth of epidemiological surveys and venom studies involving species belonging to this large Old World genus (50+ species). It is not clearly defined what species may or may not be medically significant (e.g. southern Africa Hottentotta species are generally not regarded as medically significant).

According to "A global accounting of medically significant scorpions: epidemiology, major toxins, and comparative resources in harmless counterparts" enough evidence was found to name six species of Hottentotta as "medically significant":

Hottentotta gentili (10 confirmed human fatalities)

Hottentotta jayakari

Hottentotta saulcyi

Hottentotta schach

Hottentotta tamulus (many confirmed human fatalities, predominately pediatric ages ranging from under 1 year to 16 years of age)

Hottentotta zagrosensis

LINK -> https://par.nsf.gov/servlets/purl/10122379

* Dr Scott Stockwell has been stung twice by a H. alticola with no ill effects but suffered a systemic envenomation by a suspected H. alticola that laid him up for a whole day. He called it his worst scorpion sting (said by a man who has been stung by Leiurus).

20211206_053132.jpg
20211207_115306.jpg
20211207_113946.jpg
 

Thomas Spoon Duncan

Arachnopeon
Joined
Dec 23, 2019
Messages
2
what about Hottentotta hottentotta? ive searched and searched can keep coming up with ''probably medical significant" or " no serious effects"
 

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
what about Hottentotta hottentotta? ive searched and searched can keep coming up with ''probably medical significant" or " no serious effects"
Hottentotta hottentotta is often championed by hobbyists supported by anecdotal evidence. There were two papers written on H. hottentotta, one was a study on its toxins and the other may or may not have contained epidemiological information in a paper on sub-Saharan scorpions written by M. Goyffron. Probably not, as sub-Saharan countries simply do not medically research their scorpion fauna. These papers fell into obscurity and I can not find a source.

Otherwise little is known of H. hottentotta and its toxicity but it has been implicated in the death of 2 year old child in Nigeria. And also was responsible for a pretty bad non-life threatening sting of a youth too.

It is very difficult even impossible to get any solid concrete evidence on H. hottentotta in relation to medical significance.

EDIT: The Nigerian 2 year old child fatality case study -> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njcp/article/view/98971

EDIT: The youth case study


U.E., a 16-year-old boy presented with a 1-hour history of scorpion sting affecting the big toe of the left foot while at home. He was in severe pain and was groaning. The pain radiated up to the ipsilateral groin. There was no loss of consciousness, itching, cough or difficulty in breathing. The patient had no relevant medical or surgical history. Pain score using the Visual Analog Scale was 10 (worst pain imaginable). The pulse was 96 beats/minute, regular and of full volume. Blood pressure was 130/90 mmHg.


Treatment was commenced with digital block of the affected toe, using 2 ml of 2% lidocaine. This resulted in instant pain relief. One and half hours later, the pain recurred with the same intensity as at the initial presentation. Digital block was repeated and 100 mg of hydrocortisone and 5 mg of chlorpheniramine were given intravenously. There was instant pain relief, which lasted for 2 hours after which the pain resumed. Alternatives were sought for and chloroquine hydrochloride was chosen. Two milliliters of the agent was injected around the sting site and near the digital nerves. Pain relief was reported 3 minutes later and was sustained for 24 hours.

 
Last edited:

zeeman

Arachnosquire
Old Timer
Joined
May 12, 2011
Messages
133
I'd be most interested in learning about the H jayakari because it looks amazing. Unfortunately I couldn't find any solid info on toxicity looking online.
 

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
I'd be most interested in learning about the H jayakari because it looks amazing. Unfortunately I couldn't find any solid info on toxicity looking online.
Yes, H. jayakari has not been given alot of attention and there could be a logical reason behind this I don't believe the species has any strong supportive documentation that this species has been responsible for human fatalities.

Plus, the one country that would give this scorpion serious medical attention and toxin studies is Iran. I will let some screen shots explain alittle bit of history they will be roughly uploaded in chronological order. Iran papers posted on Iranian sites can be problematic to download.

20211208_024221.jpg 20211208_024245.jpg 20211208_024058.jpg 20211208_024125.jpg 20211208_024406.jpg


The sting of a Hottentotta jayakari was found responsible for a pediatric case of bone marrow infection:

 

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
In 1999, Dr. Johann J. Kleber listed four species of Hottentotta as medically significant: H. franzwerneri, H. judaicus, H. alticola, H. minax. Unfortunately he does not cite any of his sources.

20211210_025231.jpg

(Dr. med. Johann J. Kleber Toxicological Department of II. Medical Clinic of Technical University of Munich)


H. franzwerneri is probably in reference to H.f. gentili before it was raised to species status in 2007. H. judaicus is not listed as deadly or a medically significant species by Turkey, Israel, Palestine, or Jordan.

Hottentotta judaicus iv LD50 7.94 mg/kg (Hassan 1984)

A Palestinian site remarks on H. judaicus:

20211210_023512.jpg


Low atrial rhythm as a complication of buthotus judaicus ("black" scorpion) evenomation
Scorpion stings are a common event in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the 20 species of scorpions in Israel, the most venomous are Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus (“yellow” scorpion), Androctonus crassicauda and Androctonus bicolor (both “black” scorpions) (1). Systemic toxicity is determined by the type of scorpion, its age and size, the amount of venom injected and the victim’s age -children being more susceptible (1,2). Systemic intoxication is the result of overstimulation of the central nervous system and the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Clinical manifestations range from local pain to severe cardiotoxicity or encephalopathy (1,2). Most reported cases of severe toxicity have been attributed to evenomation by Leiurus quinquestriatus (1,2). In the case presented here, a rare previously unreported cardiac arrhythmia was inflicted by the relatively non-venomous “black” scorpion Buthotus judaicus. MeSH Words: scorpion, Buthotus judaicus, conduction, cardiotoxicity.


HERE IS ANOTHER LINK FROM AN ORGANIZATION THAT PUBLISHED A HIKER'S FIELD GUIDE TO SCORPION FAUNA OF ISRAEL:

 
Last edited:

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
Very interesting thread.
Thank you I just did a run down on H. judaicus, a species that is universally regarded in Israel and Palestine as a low risk, non dangerous species to humans. Turkey has not made no great references to the species and Jordan has said nothing in regards to its medical significance certainly has not been listed among their dangerous species. I did post a case study of a systemic envenomation of 32 year old male by this species. So there could be more to H. judaicus that begs greater toxicological investigation.
 

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
Another Hottentotta species, H. trilineatus:



Common buthid species are Hottentotta and the lesser thick-tail scorpions, Uroplectes. Hottentotta trilineatus (eastern nomad scorpion), Uroplectes flavoviridis (the yellow lesser thick-tail scorpion) and U. planimanus (orange lesser-tailed) which are found under rocks and logs while U. vittatus ( stripped lesser thick-tailed) is found under the bark of trees. These are all small slender-bodied scorpions reaching a maximum of 7cm. U. flavoviridis is a dark green to green and yellow scorpion, and the others are yellow to orange scorpions with black markings. Their pedipalps are small, while their tails are fairly thick. They are extremely aggressive and when disturbed, will sting readily. Many people are stung by U. vittatus when collecting firewood or sitting on logs and U. flavoviridis is probably responsible for most scorpion stings in Zimbabwe.

Stings of Hottentotta and Uroplectes cause severe burning pain lasting 24-48 hours, followed by a dull ache for a week, sometimes a mild local inflammation occurs, no other symptoms should appear. Paracetamol can be taken to relieve the pain, and a cold compress applied immediately to localize the venom. Antihistamines have no effect on scorpion stings.

https://wholeeartheducation.com/scorpions-and-scorpionism-in-zimbabwe/

 

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
Here is a rundown:

H. judaicus - low risk (not regarded as dangerous)

H. trilineatus - low risk (not regarded as dangerous)

H. franzwerneri - ? (I have been stung by a subadult with no systemic involvement, long disregarded as a potential threat)

H. hottentotta - ? (unreliable anecdotal evidence, subsaharan countries do not perform scorpion toxin studies or conduct scorpion epidemiological reports besides the southern Africa region.)

H. minax - (see above)

H. alticola - medium > high risk (no mortalities reported)

H. jayakari - medium > high risk (no mortalities reported, Saudi Arabia has no epidemiological reports on this species only Iran)

H. khoozestanus - medium > high risk (no mortalities reported)

H. saulcyi - medium > high risk (no mortalities reported, Turkey has no epidemiological reports on this species only Iran)

H. schach - medium > high risk (no mortalities reported)

H. zagrosensis - medium > high risk (no mortalities reported)

H. gentili - high risk (mortalities reported)

H. tamulus - high risk (mortalities reported)

Hottentotta species are well documented to inflict intense localized pain and also medically significant that can produce systemic envenomations. A couple of species are responsible for confirmed human mortalities.

There is alot of fantastic Hottentotta species available in the hobby today but nothing is known of their toxicity and they have no epidemiological reports (maybe due to rarity of human encounters and confirmed case studies or their distribution includes areas that are understudied if at all).
 
Last edited:

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
Alot of factors can come into play in determining the potency of medically significant scorpion stings: the level of risk the scorpion species represents, the size and health of the scorpion, venom expenditure, the number of stings, the season, the diet of the scorpion, the locality (toxicity and toxin variability exists within the very same species), the age of the victim (pediatric and elderly victims can be alot more serious), the health and susceptibility of the sting victim (the immunocompromised and some individiuals can be more susceptible to medically significant scorpion stings than others of equal health), and the length of delayment between the time of sting to receiving proper symptomatic supportive care and/or serotherapy medical treatment.

I have no clue who T Kroes is but probably a member of this European community of scorpion keepers.

But he suffered non-fatal stings from A. australis, H. jayakari, B. occitanus, and H. tamulus. The first three he equated to minor bee sting symptons but the H. tamulus walloped him with localized and distal (from sting site) pain and featured a systemic sympton of limb paralysis.

"Quote from T.Kroes, I have already been stung by A. australis, H. jayakari, Euscorpius italicus, and Buthus occitanus and only had the normal bee sting symptoms, i.e. a slightly painful pull at the sting point. But the sting of Tamulus was awesome. In 2004 I was stabbed in the index finger of my right hand by a juvenile animal (3-4 cm KL), I have never experienced such pain, for about 12 hours ... The finger was twice as swollen and I was up the right side of the arm paralyzed up to the neck for 24 hours ... The poison was yellowish, similar to Poecilotheria. Weighs about 80 kg, think with children or something that would have turned out pretty bad. The "Red Scorpion" is one of the most notorious scorpions in India and there is not a single village that has not reported any deaths of this kind."

 
Last edited:

Tarikm

Arachnopeon
Joined
Mar 30, 2019
Messages
38
This is all great information. I just aquired tamulus and generally like hottentotta genus as a whole and love knowing more about them
 

Outpost31Survivor

Arachnoprince
Active Member
Joined
Aug 23, 2019
Messages
1,015
This is all great information. I just aquired tamulus and generally like hottentotta genus as a whole and love knowing more about them
Thank you, the Hottentotta genus is amazing and a great many of the species can be kept communal as adults.
 
Top